Standalone App closes immediately

When I follow the instructions for Building Standalone Apps, everything seems to build and I’m able to download the binary files from the Expo dashboard. I install them into the iOS simulator and Android Emulator respectively. Then when I run the app, both platforms behave the same, the app shows the splash screen for a moment, then just closes. I have no idea where to go from here. There is no error message or any sort of debugging obvious to me. Where do I go from here?

  Expo CLI 3.15.5 environment info:
    System:
      OS: macOS 10.15.3
      Shell: 5.7.1 - /bin/zsh
    Binaries:
      Node: 12.14.1 - /usr/local/bin/node
      Yarn: 1.21.1 - ~/.yarn/bin/yarn
      npm: 6.13.4 - /usr/local/bin/npm
      Watchman: 4.9.0 - /usr/local/bin/watchman
    IDEs:
      Android Studio: 3.6 AI-192.7142.36.36.6241897
      Xcode: 11.3.1/11C504 - /usr/bin/xcodebuild
    npmPackages:
      expo: ~36.0.0 => 36.0.2 
      react: ~16.9.0 => 16.9.0 
      react-native: https://github.com/expo/react-native/archive/sdk-36.0.0.tar.gz => 0.61.4 
    npmGlobalPackages:
      expo-cli: 3.15.5